Brignone beat Goggia by 0.2 of a second to top the podium and become the fourth Super G champion of the season following Viktoria Rebensburg, Goggia, and Shiffrin.
The win puts Brignone into first place in the Super G standings 16 points ahead of Switzerland's Corinne Suter and 20 ahead of Shiffrin, but the USA ski star still leaves the overall standings by 270 points.
It's another big result for this golden generation of Italian skiing in what is proving to be an incredible campaign, their 20th podium this season, and now a first red bib for Brignone.
Joana Haehlen (SUI) finished 0.34 behind the Italian duo in third to stand proudly on her second career podium, a week after conquering her first downhill World Cup podium.
Historic win for Brignone
Brignone is winding her way to something special by winning her 14th World Cup race, edging her ever closer to the most decorated World Cup skiers in Italian ski history:
Isolde Kostner has 15 and Deborah Compagnoni 16 World Cup victories.
Next up the women's World Cup continues to Garmisch-Partenkirchen for another speed weekend.
Pinturault tops podium in men's giant slalom
In the men's giant slalom at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Frenchman Alexis Pinturault became the only man to win two giant slaloms this season.
He finished top of the leaderboard ahead of Switzerland's Loic Meillard in second while Leif Nestvold-Haugen from Norway bagged third.
Racing on a shortened course after rain affected the upper part of the slope overnight, it was fast, and very tight at the top.
The Frenchman finished just 0.16 seconds ahead of Meillard, with the winner recording a combined time of 2:03.10.
Norwegian Nestvold-Haughen was just 0.24 seconds behind the leader.
Swiss skier Meillard held a slim lead after the opening run with just 0.22 seconds separating the top-five finishers, Meillard has three podium results but is yet to win a World Cup race.
It wasn't to be in Garmisch either, the Swiss skier settling for second.
Overall World Cup leader Henrik Kristoffersen was in second place after the first run, but could only finish 7th as the day belonged to Pinturault.