Four years after taking her first 21km title in Cardiff, the Kenyan stayed out of trouble on a dramatic last lap and outsprinted Germany's Melat Yisak Kejeta to take victory in fine weather conditions in Gdynia.
Her time of 1:05:16 was 18 seconds inside her previous women-only mark set seven weeks ago in Prague.
"It's unbelievable. My goal was to win this race. I did not expect that I would beat the world record, but I realised that it could happen when we passed 20km. It was a little bit windy, but the course was good for me." - Peres Jepchirchir to World Athletics
Former champions battle for gold
Jepchirchir and Kenyan team-mate, former mixed-gender half-marathon world record holder Jocelyne Jepkosgei, took the field along at a fast pace.
By 5km, the pair were at the head of the lead pack and well inside world record schedule.
As the leaders approached the 10km mark in 30:47, 2018 winner Netsanet Gudeta hit the ground hard as she navigated one of the sharp corners.
The Ethiopian quickly picked herself up but lost too much ground to catch up with the group.
Race defining fall
There was further drama as the lead group of six runners hit the 18km mark.
Ethiopia’s Ababel Yeshaneh, the current mixed-gender world-record holder, hit the front for the first time.
But her lead was short lived as she hit the ground accidentally tripping Jepkosgei in the process.
Jepchirchir, Yalemzerf Yehualaw and Germany's Melat Yisak Kejeta cautiously covered the remaining distance before the Kenyan unleashed her winning kick 30 metres from the finish line.
Kejeta, running only her second major race for her adopted country, shattered the European women-only record to take silver in 1:05:18, with Ethiopia’s Yehualaw third in 1:05:19.
Gudeta finished eighth almost two minutes behind the winner.