And it was a Dutch 1-2 with Annemiek van Vleuten claiming silver in a scintillating sprint finish with Italian Elisa Longo Borghini.
30-year-old Van der Breggen adds the road race to her time trial World title from Thursday in a clean sweep for her and the Dutch team, seven days after she was crowned winner of the Giro Rosa.
Seven days, three titles.
VDB made an early break with 30k to go, steadily building her lead, winning with an advantage of 1'20, her teammate and reigning champion Annemiek van Vleuten finishing second.
Incredibly Van Vleuten fought for the stripes and takes home silver despite fracturing her wrist in the Giro Rosa just nine days ago.
The victory also underlines Dutch dominance in women's cycling, this is the 13th time the Netherlands have won the women's world road race.
No catching VDB
Italy, Germany and Spain mounted a late attack but couldn't eat into VDB's lead in any significant way, the Dutch champ putting even greater distance between her and the pack.
There was a sense of déjà vu as the riders coursed through Imola, Van der Breggen breaking early and going on a 30km solo ride to victory, similar to the way she won the 2018 Innsbruck World Road Race.